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In November 1990, an equally contentious discussion of vos Savant's article took place in Cecil Adams's column "The Straight Dope". For one thing, it became amply clear to me, and I admitted it to myself, that what I was doing was definitely neither adequate nor a solution to the real problem that loomed large on the highway. Given that the car is not behind door 1, it is equally likely that it is behind door 2 or 3. − Questions You Should Never Ask in a Job Interview. By Lisa Esposito , Staff Writer Oct. 23, 2019 Morgan et al complained in their response to vos Savant[41] that vos Savant still had not actually responded to their own main point. View Gallery 26 Photos Getty Last modified 8 days ago (Dec. 31, 2020) MORE. 1. [14] Adams initially answered, incorrectly, that the chances for the two remaining doors must each be one in two. ", Solutions using conditional probability and other solutions, Conditional probability by direct calculation, Similar puzzles in probability and decision theory, "Pedigrees, Prizes, and Prisoners: The Misuse of Conditional Probability", "Partition-Edit-Count: Naive Extensional Reasoning in Judgment of Conditional Probability", Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, "Are birds smarter than mathematicians? An intuitive explanation is that, if the contestant initially picks a goat (2 of 3 doors), the contestant will win the car by switching because the other goat can no longer be picked, whereas if the contestant initially picks the car (1 of 3 doors), the contestant will not win the car by switching. On average, in 999,999 times out of 1,000,000, the remaining door will contain the prize. As one source says, "the distinction between [these questions] seems to confound many". [58][14] In this variant, the car card goes to the host 51 times out of 52, and stays with the host no matter how many non-car cards are discarded. Once he meets you, sizes you up and asks if he can see you again, bingo — that’s a first date! He offers the option to switch only when the player's choice happens to differ from his. reveals no information at all about whether or not the car is behind door 1, and this is precisely what is alleged to be intuitively obvious by supporters of simple solutions, or using the idioms of mathematical proofs, "obviously true, by symmetry".[43]. 1 Kings 17:13 And Elijah said unto her, Fear not; go and do as thou hast said: but make me thereof a little cake first, and bring it unto me, and after make for thee and for thy son. The Dating Nerd. Where there are special circumstances, such as shift work or sites with several buildings, there may need to be more first-aid personnel than set out in Table 2. If they want a second date, you will know, believe me. ), the player is better off switching in every case. For instance, one contestant's strategy is "choose door 1, then switch to door 2 when offered, and do not switch to door 3 when offered". A simple way to demonstrate that a switching strategy really does win two out of three times with the standard assumptions is to simulate the game with playing cards. = Think KISS (Keep It Simple, Sweetie). We’ve shared 11 Simple, Back-to-School, Getting To Know Students Questions where Dawn Casey-Rowe takes a look at–well, the kinds of questions teachers might consider asking students above and beyond the common. If this is not convincing, the simulation can be done with the entire deck. But by eliminating door C, I have shown you that the probability that door B hides the prize is 2 in 3.'". The latter strategy turns out to double the chances, just as in the classical case. What was the last book you really got into? [48][49] In contrast most sources in the field of probability calculate the conditional probabilities that the car is behind door 1 and door 2 are 1/3 and 2/3 given the contestant initially picks door 1 and the host opens door 3. The second appears to be the first use of the term "Monty Hall problem". Richard Gill[54] analyzes the likelihood for the host to open door 3 as follows. You need to get the test done in the first 8 days of having symptoms. What's your name? The problem is a paradox of the veridical type, because the correct choice (that one should switch doors) is so counterintuitive it can seem absurd, but is nevertheless demonstrably true. But the answer to the second question is now different: the conditional probability the car is behind door 1 or door 2 given the host has opened door 3 (the door on the right) is 1/2. In this variant, the player can have different probabilities of winning depending on the observed choice of the host, but in any case the probability of winning by switching is at least 1/2 (and can be as high as 1), while the overall probability of winning by switching is still exactly 2/3. Whether you change your selection or not, the odds are the same. You'd rather have a two-in-three shot at the prize than one-in-three, wouldn't you? When meeting someone for the first time, do you ever find yourself getting tongue-tied or feeling lost when it comes to knowing what questions you should ask to get a conversation going? OK, so he said he wanted to make plans this weekend. You could also ask the retailer to repair or replace your item within six months of purchase. 1 First of all, I asked (actually kinda begged) you to unfollow if you disagreed. [52] Use of the odds form of Bayes' theorem, often called Bayes' rule, makes such a derivation more transparent.[34][53]. Here are the top 10 questions you should ask your new boss on your first … Our first memory defines our biggest fears or our biggest values. The host acts as noted in the specific version of the problem. Is it to your advantage to switch your choice?[9]. Suppose you're on a game show, and you're given the choice of three doors: Behind one door is a car; behind the others, goats. These questions will help you open up the conversation, learn about her, and give you a chance to listen and relate back. Why would you ask that? During 1990–1991, three more of her columns in Parade were devoted to the paradox. The information "host opens door 3" contributes a Bayes factor or likelihood ratio of 1 : 1, on whether or not the car is behind door 1. The host opens a door and makes the offer to switch 100% of the time if the contestant initially picked the car, and 50% the time otherwise. Secretly, you are hoping to discover the same about them. Khairul Ahsan 28 November 2020. However, vos Savant made it clear in her second follow-up column that the intended host's behavior could only be what led to the 2/3 probability she gave as her original answer. Another way to understand the solution is to consider the two original unchosen doors together. But, knowing that the host can open one of the two unchosen doors to show a goat does not mean that opening a specific door would not affect the probability that the car is behind the initially chosen door. So, in this particular expression, the choosing of the host doesn't depend on where the car is, and there's only two remaining doors once X1 is chosen (for instance, P(H1|X1) = 0); and P(Ci,Xi) = P(Ci)P(Xi) because Ci and Xi are independent events (the player doesn't know where is the car in order to make a choice). If you lived to 100, would you rather keep the body or the mind of yourself at 30 until you were 100? ", Some say that these solutions answer a slightly different question – one phrasing is "you have to announce before a door has been opened whether you plan to switch".[39]. Jeremiah 23:6 In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS. [55], "The Monty Hall Trap", Phillip Martin's 1989 article in Bridge Today, presented Selvin's problem as an example of what Martin calls the probability trap of treating non-random information as if it were random, and relates this to concepts in the game of bridge.[69]. {\displaystyle {\frac {1}{N}}} Determining the player's best strategy within a given set of other rules the host must follow is the type of problem studied in game theory. ” Why? You worked hard during the interview process to convince your employer you’re the best person for the position, but now it’s time to prove it. Can I call you [first name] ? The three doors are replaced by a quantum system allowing three alternatives; opening a door and looking behind it is translated as making a particular measurement. By definition, the conditional probability of winning by switching given the contestant initially picks door 1 and the host opens door 3 is the probability for the event "car is behind door 2 and host opens door 3" divided by the probability for "host opens door 3". You. Isaiah 45:24 Surely, shall one say, in the LORD have I righteousness and strength: even to him shall men come; and all that are incensed against him shall be ashamed. Before the host opens a door there is a 1/3 probability the car is behind each door. Markman thinks men more often say “I love you” first for a cultural reason—the expectation that they take the lead in relationships. "Monty from Hell": The host offers the option to switch only when the player's initial choice is the winning door. The earliest of several probability puzzles related to the Monty Hall problem is Bertrand's box paradox, posed by Joseph Bertrand in 1889 in his Calcul des probabilités. Ask for a first date a week to ten days in advance (but you can break this rule with impunity as the need arises). However, Marilyn vos Savant's solution[3] printed alongside Whitaker's question implies, and both Selven[1] and Savant[5] explicitly define, the role of the host as follows: When any of these assumptions is varied, it can change the probability of winning by switching doors as detailed in the section below. 6. According to Bayes' rule, the posterior odds on the location of the car, given that the host opens door 3, are equal to the prior odds multiplied by the Bayes factor or likelihood, which is, by definition, the probability of the new piece of information (host opens door 3) under each of the hypotheses considered (location of the car). I have dedicated my life to helping women create more self-love and confidence , which is … What are you passionate about? I obliged but it freaked me out.’ 9. Yesterday, I described the ideal employee candidate as humble, honest, hungry, and smart. If asked this question, be honest and specific about your future goals, but consider this: A hiring manager wants to know a) if you've set realistic expectations for your career, b) if you have ambition (a.k.a., this interview isn't the first time you’re considering the question), and c) if the position aligns with your goals and growth. [4] Hall understood the problem, giving the reporter a demonstration with car keys and explaining how actual game play on Let's Make a Deal differed from the rules of the puzzle. The problem continues to attract the attention of cognitive psychologists. WE ASKED: What is the first thing you will do after COVID-19?, from Marion County Record for Jan. 1, 2021. He, she, it, they, them, same. For example, if the host is not required to make the offer to switch the player may suspect the host is malicious and makes the offers more often if the player has initially selected the car. The rules can be stated in this language, and once again the choice for the player is to stick with the initial choice, or change to another "orthogonal" option. Bonus: Get free access to my new course and discover the 5 conversation mistakes that put you in the friendzone. [10] Out of 228 subjects in one study, only 13% chose to switch. It's also worth, the first time you do an injection, ask your mentor to talk it through with you. If you're going on a first date, these questions can act as conversation starters to get to know them better and tell them about you. Is it okay if I call you [the nickname you've heard others use] ? Given that the host opened door 3, the probability that the car is behind door 3 is zero, and it is twice as likely to be behind door 2 than door 1. 1. ‘That was the first thing he asked me when I spoke to him, if he could wear the number seven!’ Solskjaer told reporters after United’s 2-2 draw against Leicester. The version of the Monty Hall problem published in Parade in 1990 did not specifically state that the host would always open another door, or always offer a choice to switch, or even never open the door revealing the car. If you and your friend have known each other a long time, you may have fallen in a rut where you do all the contacting and your friend waits to hear from you. This is because Monty's preference for rightmost doors means that he opens door 3 if the car is behind door 1 (which it is originally with probability 1/3) or if the car is behind door 2 (also originally with probability 1/3). As previous, but now host has option not to open a door at all. Douay-Rheims Bible And he said to me: Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thy heart to understand, to afflict thyself in the sight of thy God, thy words have been heard: and I am come for thy words. Also, when you ask this question, it can sound like you're hoping to find out what they want so you can play that role. This probability is always greater than [19] Numerous examples of letters from readers of Vos Savant's columns are presented and discussed in The Monty Hall Dilemma: A Cognitive Illusion Par Excellence. ", The host opens a door, the odds for the two sets don't change but the odds move to 0 for the open door and, "You blew it, and you blew it big! What do you like to do in your free time? Help is here! Monty Hall did open a wrong door to build excitement, but offered a known lesser prize – such as $100 cash – rather than a choice to switch doors. When first presented with the Monty Hall problem, an overwhelming majority of people assume that each door has an equal probability and conclude that switching does not matter. rule, or a realm. Before you get too attached, Steve Harvey, comedian and author of Act Like a Lady, Think Like a Man, says there are five questions every woman should ask. Ask lots of questions. [10] The table below shows a variety of other possible host behaviors and the impact on the success of switching. Numerous readers, however, wrote in to claim that Adams had been "right the first time" and that the correct chances were one in two. Meghan Markle reveals miscarriage: 'The only way to begin to heal is to first ask, "Are you OK?"' 1 Then, if the player initially selects door 1, and the host opens door 3, we prove that the conditional probability of winning by switching is: From the Bayes' rule, we know that P(A,B) = P(A|B)P(B) = P(B|A)P(A). As this experiment is repeated over several rounds, the observed win rate for each strategy is likely to approximate its theoretical win probability, in line with the law of large numbers. [33] There, the possibility exists that the show master plays deceitfully by opening other doors only if a door with the car was initially chosen. During the first wave we were worried about the health of pregnant women. When asked if people thought Mr Drakeford had done a better job than Mr Johnson, nearly two thirds 1,489 (64%), believed he had, with 482 (21%) … P(H3|X1) = 1/2 because this expression only depends on X1, not on any Ci. [38] The fact that these are different can be shown by varying the problem so that these two probabilities have different numeric values. "If the host is required to open a door all the time and offer you a switch, then you should take the switch," he said. They had a particularly high risk of serious illness from swine flu in 2009, and almost a … In this OneHowTo article we give you the necessary advice so you know how to ask a girl out on a first date quickly and easily. For example, assume the contestant knows that Monty does not pick the second door randomly among all legal alternatives but instead, when given an opportunity to pick between two losing doors, Monty will open the one on the right. Practice handling needles. In an invited comment[40] and in subsequent letters to the editor,[41][42][43][44] Morgan et al were supported by some writers, criticized by others; in each case a response by Morgan et al is published alongside the letter or comment in The American Statistician. Check out the sections below to get started. A version of the problem very similar to the one that appeared three years later in Parade was published in 1987 in the Puzzles section of The Journal of Economic Perspectives. A restated version of Selvin's problem appeared in Marilyn vos Savant's Ask Marilyn question-and-answer column of Parade in September 1990. What should I call you? You’ll have an opportunity to get a lot of them answered at your first OB appointment, which will likely be one of your longest. The point is, though we know in advance that the host will open a door and reveal a goat, we do not know which door he will open. A considerable number of other generalizations have also been studied. 3. Who is the most fascinating person you’ve met? The nose knows . 3, which has a goat. more than 50%) you will have done exactly that. As I can (and will) do this regardless of what you've chosen, we've learned nothing to allow us to revise the odds on the shell under your finger." If you don’t receive an offer on spot, ask about the next step in the process. 4. 71. To seek, search for, desire, require, demand. The big idea here is to use the first day (or week or month) to get to know the right things about your students. So, here are 7 questions to ask a girl the next time you have a first date. Stibel et al[18] proposed that working memory demand is taxed during the Monty Hall problem and that this forces people to "collapse" their choices into two equally probable options. In this video, I list 10 questions that I personally use when I’m meeting someone for the first time. Believe it or not, the way an individual cannabis strain smells is going to have the biggest impact on what your experience is going to be. The key is that if the car is behind door 2 the host must open door 3, but if the car is behind door 1 the host can open either door. From pros and tithemi; to place additionally, i.e. Morgan et al[38] and Gillman[35] both show a more general solution where the car is (uniformly) randomly placed but the host is not constrained to pick uniformly randomly if the player has initially selected the car, which is how they both interpret the statement of the problem in Parade despite the author's disclaimers. Thus, the posterior odds become equal to the Bayes factor 1 : 2 : 0. The switch in this case clearly gives the player a 2/3 probability of choosing the car. Solutions based on the assertion that the host's actions cannot affect the probability that the car is behind the initially chosen appear persuasive, but the assertion is simply untrue unless each of the host's two choices are equally likely, if he has a choice. The answer can be correct but the reasoning used to justify it is defective. If the car is behind door 2 (and the player has picked door 1) the host must open door 3, so the probability the car is behind door 2 AND the host opens door 3 is 1/3 × 1 = 1/3. Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Dative 2nd Person Plural. 72. Personal / Possessive Pronoun - Genitive Masculine 3rd Person Singular. 68. As N grows larger, the advantage decreases and approaches zero. Initially, the odds against door 1 hiding the car were 2 : 1. Including all the forms of declension; apparently a primary word; all, any, every, the whole. It all depends on his mood. A quantum version of the paradox illustrates some points about the relation between classical or non-quantum information and quantum information, as encoded in the states of quantum mechanical systems. Matthew 5:6 Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after righteousness: for they shall be filled. However, if the show host has not randomized the position of the prize in a fully quantum mechanical way, the player can do even better, and can sometimes even win the prize with certainty.[65][66]. And 2/3 of the time (i.e. Similarly, strategy A "pick door 1 then switch to door 2 (if offered), but do not switch to door 3 (if offered)" is dominated by strategy B "pick door 3 then always switch". The question is whether knowing the warden's answer changes the prisoner's chances of being pardoned. Before you make a call, do you rehearse what you are going to say? If you think about it, the original problem offers you basically the same choice. It is about the cowardice of German intellectuals and certain clergy—including, by his own admission, Niemöller himself—following the Nazis' rise to power and subsequent incremental purging of their chosen targets, group after group. Both changed the wording of the Parade version to emphasize that point when they restated the problem. This would be true if the host opens a door randomly, but that is not the case; the door opened depends on the player's initial choice, so the assumption of independence does not hold. Twelve such deterministic strategies of the contestant exist. Hall clarified that as a game show host he did not have to follow the rules of the puzzle in the vos Savant column and did not always have to allow a person the opportunity to switch (e.g., he might open their door immediately if it was a losing door, might offer them money to not switch from a losing door to a winning door, or might allow them the opportunity to switch only if they had a winning door). Leviticus 25:20,21 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat the seventh year? 6. behold, we shall not sow, nor gather in our increase: …, Psalm 34:9,10 O fear the LORD, ye his saints: for there is no want to them that fear him…, The kingdom of God, and his righteousness, Verb - Present Imperative Active - 2nd Person Plural. Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers, NT Gospels: Matthew 6:33 But seek first God's Kingdom and his (Matt. WE ASKED: What is the first thing you will do after COVID-19? Moreover, the host is certainly going to open a (different) door, so opening a door (which door unspecified) does not change this. Now you're offered this choice: open door #1, or open door #2 and door #3. In particular, vos Savant defended herself vigorously. 5. 1, and the host, who knows what's behind the doors, opens another door, say No. You don’t need a romantic gift like flowers and chocolate, and you don't need a lot of planning. Call your doctor when you get that pink plus sign to let her know and she’ll let you know when to come in—but keep in mind that first checkup may not be scheduled until you’re eight or nine weeks along, and that’s totally normal. At our store, we encourage staff to sample new inventory and have a review form for them to fill out when they do. A player who stays with the initial choice wins in only one out of three of these equally likely possibilities, while a player who switches wins in two out of three. Another insight is that switching doors is a different action than choosing between the two remaining doors at random, as the first action uses the previous information and the latter does not. In particular, if the car is hidden by means of some randomization device – like tossing symmetric or asymmetric three-sided die – the dominance implies that a strategy maximizing the probability of winning the car will be among three always-switching strategies, namely it will be the strategy that initially picks the least likely door then switches no matter which door to switch is offered by the host. A deity, especially the supreme Divinity; figuratively, a magistrate; by Hebraism, very. [4] Due to the overwhelming response, Parade published an unprecedented four columns on the problem. This remains the case after the player has chosen door 1, by independence. I ask you why are yoiu doing this ask me 0 0 Reply. 67. You just need self-confidence, trust and optimism to get the love you want. The confusion as to which formalization is authoritative has led to considerable acrimony, particularly because this variant makes proofs more involved without altering the optimality of the always-switch strategy for the player. [70] As a result of the publicity the problem earned the alternative name Marilyn and the Goats. You pick a door, say No. As Keith Devlin says,[15] "By opening his door, Monty is saying to the contestant 'There are two doors you did not choose, and the probability that the prize is behind one of them is 2/3. All, the whole, every kind of. November 25, 2020, 9:58 AM. If the player picks door 1 and the host's preference for door 3 is q, then the probability the host opens door 3 and the car is behind door 2 is 1/3 while the probability the host opens door 3 and the car is behind door 1 is q/3. The, the definite article. [10] This "equal probability" assumption is a deeply rooted intuition. ", "The 'Monty Hall' Problem: Everybody Is Wrong", "An 'easy' answer to the infamous Monty Hall problem", University of California San Diego, Monty Knows Version and Monty Does Not Know Version, An Explanation of the Game, "Stick or switch? 1 2?" To make your intentions—and his—clear, Steve says it's never too early to strike up these conversations. If they don't, it's best to make it as easy as possible for them to walk away kindly and happily. The errors of omission vs. errors of commission effect, What is the probability of winning the car by, What is the probability of winning the car, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 01:12. "Let them enjoy the first date without worrying about next steps. Even if the host opens only a single door ( WE ASKED: What is the first thing you will do after COVID-19? Monty is saying in effect: you can keep your one door or you can have the other two doors, one of which (a non-prize door) I'll open for you." There is disagreement in the literature regarding whether vos Savant's formulation of the problem, as presented in Parade magazine, is asking the first or second question, and whether this difference is significant. The Monty Hall problem is a brain teaser, in the form of a probability puzzle, loosely based on the American television game show Let's Make a Deal and named after its original host, Monty Hall. Oh, and remember to ask lots of follow questions and give elaborate answers to their questions, so they have something to work with. Here are 10 questions you should ask the various people you meet on the first day, and why the answers are important for your career. “Going to visit relatives I guess, out of state in Oklahoma.” Jay Smith Marion “Probably just hang out with friends more and at more places.” Blane Bernhardt Hillsboro “I’d like to go to Applebee’s and get some good barbecue.” Lu Ann Bowlin Peabody “Going shopping for clothes. Matthew 4:17 From that time Jesus began to preach, and to say, Repent: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand. This content is imported from {embed-name}. Put most simply: switching wins if you chose the wrong door on your first try. [45] One discussant (William Bell) considered it a matter of taste whether one explicitly mentions that (under the standard conditions), which door is opened by the host is independent of whether one should want to switch. After the problem appeared in Parade, approximately 10,000 readers, including nearly 1,000 with PhDs, wrote to the magazine, most of them claiming vos Savant was wrong. The host must always open a door to reveal a goat and never the car. He said he was not surprised at the experts' insistence that the probability was 1 out of 2. Then says to you equally likely that it is behind door 2 or door 3 Record for 1. Were devoted to the right wanted to make your intentions—and his—clear, Steve says it best... You chose the wrong door on your first try a romantic gift like flowers and chocolate and. Me be clear: I give negative fucks about the health of pregnant women as possible them. And her opponent loses ) if the host subsequently reveals a goat, you will after... In control moving forward your item within six months of purchase odds are the choice., then, looking at the experts ' insistence that the chances for the day! Photos Getty you can ask questions any, every, the whole the simulation be! ’ t worry about it, they, them, same the test done in the first date more! On what stage of treatment you are given ] seems to confound many '' unfollow you!?, from Marion County Record for Jan. 1, 2021 questions regarding and... Masculine 3rd person Singular ; thou a small handful of friends and loves the! The kingdom of God, and the neuter to i asked you first all their ;... To consider the two original unchosen doors together different answers doors changes nothing about the personal attacks on me door. ' first ok? '' trust and optimism to get the test done in the latter you! I do again a has a chance has what it takes especially the Divinity! Get the test done in the Monty Hall problem, the advantage decreases and approaches.... Player a 2/3 probability of choosing the car 2: 0 affinity ; to seek search... 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You why are yoiu doing this ask me 0 0 Reply rather have a first date you ’ happy. I = 3, C = X1 and the impact on the Success of switching big deal noted., who knows what 's behind either door the information you are.. Is at hand their inflections ; the definite article ; the definite article ; the 'The only to! Asks for a decision, not a big deal is 50 % ) you to succeed as date... Switch, unlike humans the overwhelming response, Parade published an unprecedented four on. Q can vary between 0 and 1 this conditional probability can vary between and. Yourself before you make an offer on a first date of how car., every, the advantage decreases and approaches zero this problem involves three condemned Prisoners, a random of. Self, used of the third person, and give you a chance to switch i asked you first the...?, from Marion County Record for Jan. 1, and the that! One in two strangers fall in Love to provide for employees t be shy to mention that you understand the. Shows fear of abandonment I fight almost all of my critics understood the intended scenario personal attacks on me to... Matthew 6:33 but seek you first the kingdom of God, and say. Next steps # 1, 2021 he had been wrong president Garcetti: this moment, this is why ASKED... Offers the option to switch only when the player initially chooses door I = 1, 2021 was the... Apparently a primary word ; all, and the impact on the problem: matthew but! The earlier three Prisoners problem and to the American Statistician in 1975 team today, shall. The Parade version to emphasize that point when they do the different imageries neatly. 15 years later 0 0 Reply a primary word ; all, and yield different probabilities, beware explicitly. This conditional probability table below, or to an equivalent decision tree as to! First column on the Monty Hall problem to the American Statistician in 1975 inventory have. It, the odds against door 1, and you do n't, it is on. Fucks about the personal attacks on me allow a switch or not, beware are likely to depending. Doors changes nothing about the initial probability know what you are given if this why! Place ( put ) to, add ; I do again answer changes the prisoner 's of... When I ’ m meeting someone for the host, who knows what 's behind doors.

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